Birkhimer on the history of artillery in the United States Army was the standard work on the subject for over one hundred years. Lieutenant Birkhimer's history is a valuable contribution to understanding the background of artillery in the United States through the Civil War period, but artillery has changed radically since its publication.
It complements the lineage volume on Regular Army and Army Reserve field artillery regiments, published in but currently being updated to include commands, brigades, groups, and regiments in all three components. In the last thirty years, several books on field artillery have appeared, some popular histories and a few scholarly works, but the focus of this volume is on the organizational structure of U. Army artillery rather than its weapons or its operations. In the main, the narrative is chronological, with nuclear missiles and rockets covered separately because their history did not follow that of cannon artillery.
The term artillery originally referred to all engines of war designed to discharge missiles, such as the catapult, ballista, and trebuchet, among others.
Field Artillery, Part I and Part II
Toward the end of the Middle Ages, weapons employing gunpowder superseded such engines of war, and in a more restricted sense, artillery came to mean all firearms not carried and used by hand. By the mid-twentieth century, it included all manner of large guns as distinguished from small arms , howitzers, rockets, and guided missiles, and also came to be applied to the personnel who transport and service the weapons and to the organization and branch of the Army to which the personnel are assigned.
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Learn about the history of America's development and testing of nuclear weapons from this reproduction Learn about the history of America's development and testing of nuclear weapons from this reproduction of two important Energy Department publications: The Manhattan Project - Making the Atomic Bomb, and Origins of the Nevada Test Site. Each publication provides exclusive View Product.
Catalog Record: The organizational history of field artillery | HathiTrust Digital Library
A War of Their Own: Bombers over the. Captain Matt Rodman's book is an intriguing study of a moment in history when combat Captain Matt Rodman's book is an intriguing study of a moment in history when combat airpower played a key role in achieving victory.
He expertly recounts how Fifth Air Force quickly developed new tactics and procedures that saved the day. The United The United Nations was reluctant to provide a specific endorsement for direct U. Without this authorization, a number of close allies refused to participate in Armies in Gray: The Organizational History of the. In the tradition of Ezra J. Fullerton supplies an indispensable reference work on Confederate forces over the entire course of the Civil War. Armies in Gray details the development and organization Of the issues facing the Field Artillery, none garnered as much attention as that of ammunition shortages.
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And to better understand this issue, it behooves the reader to have a rudimentary knowledge of the calibers involved. Components were issued and delivered separately, which created a logistics nightmare. The mm howitzers in the UN inventory fired semi-fixed ammunition; propellant was divided into increments, or charges, and the charges were tied together and stored in cartridge cases. Each howitzer crew adjusted the charge by lifting the projectile from its case. Three calibers denoted simplicity; but, each caliber necessitated a variety of shell type—high-explosive, smoke, illumination, each with a different shell-fuse combination.
M 8-inch howitzer, in action. May 27, , near Yonchon, Korea. Battery A, 17th F.
Infantry Division. Wikipedia Commons. Per Lieutenant Colonel John E.
Communist forces in Korea have been employed against us in an 8-to-1 ratio. We have countered with a ratio of more than to-1 in firepower. The pitting of firepower against manpower has led to unprecedented logistical problems. This represents 27 Liberty Ship loads, or 3, rail-car loads, or 39, 2. The th has had over rail cars of ammunition moving forward from Pusan to Inchon at one time. As a result, in this sixty-day period, we delivered across the front 3, rounds to each mm howitzer; 2, rounds to each mm howitzer; 1, rounds to each mm howitzer—but only rounds to each 60 mm mortar and rounds to each M-1 rifle.
Over , hand grenades were used by the Eighth Army. One infantry regiment used in one night.
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Army public domain image, Wikipedia Commons. In this engagement the artillery fired often and for long periods at five times the normal rate. On May 22 the artillery fired 49, rounds on the corps front. In seven days from 17 May to 23 May , the twenty-one battalions including four Marine and two Republic of Korea battalions supporting X Corps, fired , rounds, or more than 8, tons.
During the assault on Metz in , XX Corps expended 10, tons of artillery ammunition in ten days. At Soyang, daily expenditures were 50, rounds, representing 1, tons, on May 20, and 49, rounds representing 1, tons on 22 May. On 17 May the 38th Field Artillery Battalion alone fired 11, rounds—an average of almost one round per gun every two minutes for the whole twenty-four hour period. Total expenditures for the period 10 May-7 June amounted to over , rounds, or some 18, tons of artillery ammunition. Between 15 and 22 May the daily expenditure of ammunition averaged 73 percent of the tonnage of all other supplies expended, and it reached as high as